COYOTE PRESS ARCHIVES OF
CALIFORNIA PREHISTORY

Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat, Series editors

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5


51. Listening to the Raven: The Southern California Ethnography of Constance Goddard DuBois
edited by Don Laylander (2004).


During the first decade of the twentieth century, Constance Goddard DuBois, a novelist, activist for Indian welfare, and amateur ethnographer, conducted pioneering studies of the Diegueño and Luiseño Indians of southwestern California. Her efforts saved from the ravages of time a substantial and important body of ethnographic information.

This volume presents 24 of DuBois' 1899-1908 articles and monographs, dealing primarily with native mythology, ceremonies, crafts, and contemporary conditions. The editor has annotated these texts, as well as providing introductory chapters on the aboriginal world of southern California, the development of regional ethnography, the circumstances of DuBois' work, and the nature of her ethnographic contributions.




50. Archaeological Investigations at CA-SCL-674, The Rubino Site, San Jose, Santa Clara County, California, Vol. II. Human Skeletal Biology of CA-SCL-674
by Diane L. Grady, Kate A. Latham and Valerie A. Andrushko (2001).







49. Archaeological Data Recovery at CA-SCR-44, at the Site of the Lakeview Middle School, Watsonville, Santa Cruz County, California
Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (2000)


Excavations at CA-SCR-44 produced one of the largest, if not the largest, cache of incised bird bone whistles found in central California. In the 1950s, gravediggers in the St. Francis Cemetery, in a different part of the site, uncovered the largest cache ever found of Type N1bIII Haliotis ornaments (banjo pendants) ever found. Skeletal measurements on one of the individuals with incised bird bone whistles suggest he originated in the Lower Sacramento Valley, some 90 miles to the north.

We believe that the information recovered from this site shows that one or more individuals associated with the Kuksu system, bearing distinctive artifacts, made the journey from the area of CA-CCO-138, in eastern Contra Costa County, to the Monterey Bay sometime around A.D. 1500.

Includes ten color plates.






48. Archaeological Evaluation of Sites CA-MNT-798, CA-MNT-799 and CA-MNT-800, in the Pfeiffer Beach Day Use Area, Big Sur, Monterey County, California
by Robert L. Edwards, Gary S. Breschini, Trudy Haversat, and Charr Simpson-Smith (2000)


Excavations at Pfeiffer Beach, on the Big Sur coast, have provided additional information on the late prehistoric/historic contact period. Radiocarbon dates and historical artifacts date to approximately A.D. 1800 or later and provide information on chronology, settlement and subsistence, and Esselen culture history.




47. Early Ethnography of the Californias: 1533-1825
by Don Laylander (2000)


From the preface: The Californias were the subject of recorded observations by numerous outsiders during the three centuries which followed their initial discovery early in the sixteenth century. The region's coastlines, topography, climate, flora, and fauna all received attention. But arguably the most interesting and important aspects of the early reports concerned the native peoples. This primacy of ethnography reflects in part our natural curiosity about the lives and lifeways of fellow human beings. However, the human element is also the facet of the region which has been most profoundly and irrevocably altered since those early days, and for a knowledge of which we are consequently most dependent on the early observers' accounts.

Strangers came to the Californias from most of the countries of Europe and from several other parts of the Americas. They were impelled by a variety of motives, including greed, piety, and ambition, and with a variety of expectations as to what they would find. They saw different portions of the region, at different time periods, within different contexts. When the outsiders committed their observations to paper, they did so in different formats, and they directed their comments toward different audiences. Uniformity in their views of the Native Californians is not to be expected, both because of differences in the realities which they were attempting to describe and differences in the knowledge and biases of the reporters. It would be easy to prove that none of the observers did full justice to the subject. Some elements of their descriptions are demonstrably false. Yet the testimony in the early accounts is indispensable, and if it is weighed critically, it can offer valuable and interesting insights.

This study addresses the ethnographic contributions concerning the Native Californians which were made between the region's first accidental discovery by a Spanish mutineer, Fortún Jiménez, in 1533 and the description written by the Franciscan missionary Gerónimo Boscana around 1825, shortly after Mexico had won its independence from Spain. The focus of interest is the character of native lifeways as they existed prior to or outside the range of European influences.




46. The Coyote Hills Area, Alameda County, California: A Settlement Pattern and Artifact Distribution Study
by Glen B. Wilson (1999)


Contents: Introduction; The Sites; CA-ALA-343; -328; -12; -329; -13; -342; -479; -331; -453; -330; Chronology; Settlement Chronology; Previous Chronologies; Previous Regional Interpretations; Possible Settlement Origins; Artifact Comparisons; The Mortuary Complex Hypothesis; The Sequence of Settlement Patterns; Early Period; Early-Middle Transition Period; Middle Period; Middle-Late Transition Period; Late Period; and Summary. It includes numerous illustrations and maps.




45. Papers on California Prehistory: 5
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1997).


This publication includes the following: J. Porcasi: One-Piece Circular Bone Fishhooks: Rare Artifacts from the California Coast (includes five color ink-jet plates). Gabet: Evidence of Armed Conflict in Prehistoric California Skeletal Remains. Chartkoff: The Bleak and the Gray Revisited.




44. Contributions to the Linguistic Prehistory of Central and Baja California
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1997)


This publication includes the following: Laylander: The Linguistic Prehistory of Baja California. Levy: The Linguistic Prehistory of Central California: Historical Linguistics and Culture Process. Breschini & Haversat: Linguistics and Prehistory: A Case Study from the Monterey Bay Area.




43. The Shobhan Paul Site (CA-LAN-958): Archaeological Investigations of a Coastal Millingstone Horizon Occupation
edited by Roy A. Salls (1995).


This publication includes the following: Salls: Introduction. Brooks, Conway, Freedman, Grabiel & Knight: Environmental Setting. Salls: Archaeological Background. P. Porcasi: Bioturbation Analysis of the Shobhan Paul Site. P. Porcasi: Ground Stone Analysis. J. Porcasi: Shobhan Paul Site (CA-LAN-958) Chipped Stone Analysis.




42. The Archaeology of Las Montanas (CA-SDI-10246): A Paleo-Economic Interpretation of a Milling Stone Horizon Site, San Diego County, California
by Robert M. Yohe II and Paul G. Chace (1995).

The Las Montanas site (CA-SDI-10246) was initially recognized in 1979 during a survey of the Las Montanas Estates properties. The site included a dispersed array of archaeological debris, and had sufficient potential significance to warrant further investigation.

In July and August 1985 limited archaeological investigations were conducted. Artifactual materials exposed across the surface were collected, and two one-meter-square test units were excavated. Based on these investigations, a detailed report was prepared. It concluded that this was a small camp, a special activity location for plant processing which included a bedrock platform for milling or pulping and possibly a roasting oven. The site area included a meager artifact assemblage, primarily milling equipment and core tools, which were considered to be consistent with materials encountered in other sites occupied by people of the ancient Encinitas Tradition.

The County's Staff Archaeologist, Ronald May, concluded that the site should still be considered unique, with additional potential to contribute to scientific research. Robert M. Yohe, II was brought onto the team to direct the daily operations of the subsequent archaeological data recovery project. In late August 1988 a program was undertaken to accurately determine the boundaries of subsurface archaeological deposits. Soil chemistry studies were conducted, and a series of backhoe trenches were excavated. Based on these data, a comprehensive excavation with a 16% hand-excavated sample of the site deposit was conducted. The investigations commenced in late September and concluded on October 28, 1988.

Finally, the archaeological site was carefully graded to bedrock and the soil deposits exposed over the knoll were carefully monitored for archaeological remains. No new kinds of archaeological features were uncovered, but many additional stone artifacts were documented and incorporated into the collection.

Appendices include: Cerreto: Phosphate Analysis. E.J. Lawlor: Phytolith Analysis. Newman: Immunological Analysis. T.L. Jackson: X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis. Gutzler: Palynology. Yohe: Floral Remains. Yohe: Terrestrial Vertebrate and Avian Remains. Chace & Bleitz: Fish Remains.




41. Papers on California Prehistory: 4
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1995).


This publication includes the following: Parkman: A Theoretical Consideration of the Pitted Boulder. Adams & Chartkoff: The Utility of r-K Selection Theory in Anthropology and its Application to California Archaeology. Hildebrandt, Bethard & Boe: Archaeological Investigations at CA-SCL-714/H: A Protohistoric Cemetery Area Near Gilroy, California.




40. Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, On Ballast Point, San Diego County, California
by Dennis Gallegos and Carolyn Kyle (1998)


This publication includes the following: Introduction; Culture Prehistory; Research Design; Masters: Paleo-Environmental Reconstruction of San Diego Bay, 10,000 B.P. to Present; Field Methods and Results; Analysis of Cores, Flakes, and Angular Waste; Christenson: Bone Tools and Modified Bone; Christenson & Roeder: La Jollan Subsistence Economy: Fish, Mammals, and Birds at CA-SDI-48; Cerreto: Marine Invertebrate Analysis; Gutzler: Palynology of Site CA-SDI-48; Gutzler: Site Stratigraphy and Dating; Research Results; and Huddleston: Appendix 1: Otolith Analysis.




39. The Archaeological Collection from CA-ALA-329, the Ryan Mound, Alameda County, California
by Glen B. Wilson (1993).


CA-ALA-329, the Ryan Mound, has been excavated by a least four Bay Area universities. However, a major portion of the data gathered during these excavations remains unpublished. In order to alleviate the loss of about 2,000 artifacts in danger of being reburied, I have illustrated them. This report also documents site chronology (through hydration, radiocarbon dating and bead types), provides observations regarding the distribution of artifact types across the burial population, and presents a limited bird and mammal bone study.




38. Further Notes On California Charmstones
by Albert B. Elsasser and Peter T. Rhode (1996).


This publication includes the following sections: Introduction, Brief History of Charmstone Studies in the United States, Function, Classification of Charmstones, Geographical/Temporal Distributions of Charmstones in California and Adjoining Regions, Material Sources and Relationship to Rock Art, Symbolism of Charmstones, Conclusions, Bibliography, Appendix 1--Additional Descriptive and Distributional Data, Appendix 2--Selected Quotations Pertaining to Archaeological/Ethnological Use of Charmstones, and Appendix 3--An Annotated Bibliography Pertaining to Charmstone Symbolism, compiled by Peter T. Rhode.




37.
Archaeological Investigations of Some Significant Sites on the Central Coast of California
edited by Herb Dallas, Jr. and Gary S. Breschini (1992).


This publication includes the following: Dallas & Breschini: Preface: California Archaeology for the Next Millennium. Dallas: Hunters and Gatherers at CA-SLO-977, San Luis Obispo County, California. Cooley: Observations on Hydration Measurements of Obsidian Deriving from Buried Deposits from Site CA-SBA-2028, at Gaviota, Santa Barbara County, California. Breschini & Haversat: Archaeological Excavations at CA-MNT-108, Fisherman's Wharf, Monterey County, California. Erlandson, Dugger, Carrico & Cooley: Archaeological Investigations at CA-SBA-97: A Multicomponent Coastal Site at Gaviota, California. Kirkish: CA-SBA-2389: A Possible Chumash Sun-Shrine on Vandenberg Air Force Base. Altschul, Ciolek-Torrello & Homburg: Late Prehistoric Change in the Ballona Wetland. Glassow: Changes in Prehistoric Subsistence, Settlement, and Technology at CA-SBA-84 and -117, El Capitan State Beach, California.




36.
Baseline Archaeological Studies at Rancho San Carlos, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California
by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1992).


Rancho San Carlos has offered a unique opportunity to study a virtually intact archaeological site complex. Comprising 20,000 acres, the ranch contains at least 45 prehistoric sites. One or more (or perhaps most) of the sites on San Francisquito Flat represent the ethnographic village of Echilat, from which Spanish missionaries obtained 90 converts.

The results suggest that sites CA-MNT-1485/H and CA-MNT-1486/H were occupied at about the same time, beginning in the middle or late portions of the Middle Period and continuing through the Late Period. This represents occupation for a period of approximately 1,000 years prior to the arrival of the Spanish in 1770. These sites appear to represent two loci of a dispersed occupation area, and almost certainly were associated with the ethnographic village of Echilat.

This project provided the first detailed examination of a Late Period residential base in the Monterey Peninsula area. Data from the excavations has supplemented background research and data from other studies, and has allowed us to make new interpretations of the Rumsenšs seasonal round. It appears that the earlier view of five villages, each somewhat isolated from the other, was incorrect. There was considerable interaction between the villages; in fact, the Rumsen population appears to have been very mobile within its territory.

Appendices: Breschini & Haversat: Archaeological Background for the Monterey Peninsula Area. Milliken: Ethnographic and Ethnohistoric Background for the San Francisquito Flat Vicinity, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California. Gibson: Analysis of Shell and Stone Beads and Ornaments from CA-MNT-1485 and CA-MNT-1486, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California. Rondeau & Rondeau: Lithic Analysis of Collections from Three Archaeological Sites, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California. Langenwalter & Bowser: Vertebrate Animal Remains from Three Inland Late Period Archaeological Sites, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California. Jackson & Jackson: X-ray Fluorescence Analysis and Obsidian Hydration Rim Measurement of Artifact Obsidian from CA-MNT-1481, -1485, and -1486, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California. Miksicek: Plant Remains from CA-MNT-1485 and CA-MNT--1486: A Pilot Study. Breschini & Haversat: pH Analyses for CA-MNT-1481 and CA-MNT-1486, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California. Somers: Geophysical Studies for CA-MNT-1485 and CA-MNT-1486, at San Francisquito Flat, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California.




35. Archaic Milling Cultures of the Southern San Francisco Bay Region
by Richard T. Fitzgerald, Jr. (1993).


The purpose of this study is twofold. The first is to examine data from three sites (CA-SCL-65, CA-SCL-178, and CA-SCL-177) in the southern San Francisco Bay area in an attempt to identify temporally discrete archaeological components which exemplify a subsistence strategy based primarily on the collection of non-acorn vegetal foods. The second goal is to determine how the subsistence/settlement patterns reflected at the three sites compare with established chronological, cultural, and temporal framework within the greater San Francisco Bay area. In addition, data from the three sites is compared to assemblages outside of the region thought to represent subsistence strategies reliant upon the milling of hard seeds and other vegetal foods.




34. Archaeology on the Northern Channel Islands of California: Studies of Subsistence, Economics, and Social Organization
edited by Michael A. Glassow (1993).


This publication includes the following: Preface. Glassow: Introduction: A Progress Report on Northern Channel Islands Archaeological Research. Johnson: A Geographic Analysis of Island Chumash Marriage Networks. Timbrook: Island Chumash Ethnobotany. Rozaire: The Bladelet Industry on Anacapa and San Miguel Islands, California. Glassow: Changes in Subsistence on Marine Resources through 7,000 Years of Prehistory on Santa Cruz Island, California. Bowser: Dead Fish Tales: Analysis of Fish Remains from Two Middle Period Sites on San Miguel Island, California. Wilcoxon: Subsistence and Site Structure: An Approach for Deriving Cultural Information from Coastal Shell Middens. Guthrie: Listen to the Birds?: The Use of Avian Remains in Channel Islands Archaeology.




33. Papers on California Prehistory: 3
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1991).


This publication includes the following: Gerow: Stanford Man II, An Early Grave from the San Francisco Bay Region. Parkman: Three Papers on California Rock Art. Breschini & Haversat: Archaeological Investigations at Three Late Period Coastal Abalone Processing Sites on the Monterey Peninsula, Monterey County, California. Langenwalter & Huddleston: Appendix 1: Vertebrate Animal Remains from CA-MNT-129, A Late Period Coastal Abalone Processing Site on the Monterey Peninsula, California. Langenwalter & Bowser: Appendix 2: Vertebrate Animal Remains from CA-MNT-1084, A Late Period Coastal Abalone Processing Site on the Monterey Peninsula, California. Chartkoff & Donahue: A Survey Method for Route Corridors. Macko & Weil: Specialized Food Procurement at CA-KER-1437, the Elliot Ranch Site.




32. Papers on the Archaeology of the Mojave Desert: 2
edited by Mark Q. Sutton (1991).


This publication includes the following: Sutton: Preface. Sutton: A Forward to the Baker Site Report. Nakamura: The Baker Site [CA-SBR-541]. Krosen & Schneider: Ring Midden Roasting Pits at Clark Mountain, Mojave Desert, San Bernardino County, California. Yohe & Sutton: The Excavation of an Unusual Rock Feature North of Kramer Junction, San Bernardino County, California. Sutton & Parr: An Archaeological Inventory of Hidden Valley, Central Mojave Desert, California.




31. Archaeological and Ethnohistoric Investigations at CA-NEV-194, near Rough and Ready, Nevada County, California
by A.G. Pastron, M.R. Walsh and C.W. Clewlow, Jr. (1990).


The importance of the site lies not in the areal extent or depth of the archaeological deposits, the richness or quantity of the recovered material culture, the intensity or duration of the research, or the spectacular nature of the data adduced; rather, the significance derives from the fact that the site represents a type of archaeological entity that is a relative rarity in the Sierra Nevada region--an occupation site associated with the brief, traumatic period of contact between the Nisenan and Euro-Americans during and after the Gold Rush.

Sites like CA-NEV-194 may have been overlooked in the past simply because they tend to be characterized by limited assemblages of material culture, and are therefore often difficult to identify. Also, they may have seemed less worthy of excavation than extensive, obviously rich, prehistoric village sites. In addition, until relatively recently, many prehistorians have often interpreted the presence of historic artifacts in Native American archaeological deposits as evidence of disturbance or intrusion rather than a primary indicator of a potentially rewarding research effort.

Investigation of CA-NEV-194 allows us to frame essential questions regarding the lifeways of the Nisenan in the Grass Valley area during a period of drastic transition and dislocation, and to begin to relate the often sketchy historical record with archaeological data. In spite of the fact that this monograph chronicles a small, seemingly minor contact era site, it is hoped the issues raised by the present research will stimulate further interest and study into a little known but important aspect of California history and ethnohistory. Indeed, one of the principal purposes of this research is to evaluate and disseminate information drawn from a variety of sources that will hopefully be of use to other investigators studying similar sites in the region.




30. A Taxonomic Analysis of Avian Faunal Remains from Three Archaeological Sites in Marina Del Rey, Los Angeles County, California
by Joan C. Brown (1989).


Archaeological sites CA-LAN-59, -61A, and -61B, on a bluff overlooking the Ballona Creek Wetlands, Marina del Rey, California, were excavated in 1983 and 1985. The avian faunal material collected from these sites contains a disproportionate number of coracoids, scapulae, and other wing elements. This discrepancy cannot be attributed to post-depositional attrition, nor to any archaeological sampling bias. Ethnographic accounts describe religious paraphernalia, costumes, clothing, blankets, and other items that were manufactured from feathers and feather down. The birds primarily represented in the collection have especially colorful and/or dense plumage that could have been used in the manufacture of such items. It is concluded that the bias of bird wing bones in the collection results from this activity.




29. Archaeological Excavations at CA-MNT-108, at Fisherman's Wharf, Monterey, Monterey County, California
by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1989).


This report details methods utilized and summarizes results obtained from data recovery excavations undertaken as mitigation for construction damage at CA-MNT-108, a large Early Period village situated near Fisherman's Wharf, in Monterey, California.

CA-MNT-108 was occupied about 4800 B.P. and largely abandoned by 2400 B.P. It appears to have been the main Early Period residential base on the Monterey Peninsula during the summer months, and may have been a "village center" from which a chief, or the equivalent, controlled the economic life of the community. It has a material density approaching an order of magnitude greater than any other site examined on the Monterey Peninsula. Compared with CA-MNT-391, on Cannery Row, CA-MNT-108 has, in the same volume of soil, approximately 6 to 10 times as many shell beads, 16 times as much lithic debitage, 52 times as much fish bone, and 7.8 times as much non-fish bone. The early obsidian rim readings are currently unique on the Monterey Peninsula.

Based on the vertebrate remains, particularly fish otoliths it appears that CA-MNT-108 was occupied during the summer, from perhaps early May through early October.

The inhabitants of CA-MNT-108 appear to have been foragers rather than collectors. However, they do not compare exactly with Binford's model or with the attributes extracted from that model by Dietz. The density of cultural materials among foragers is expected to be relatively low, but CA-MNT-108 exhibits the highest densities of cultural materials yet obtained on the Monterey Peninsula. The bone densities are among the highest documented in California.

Appendices: Langenwalter, Reynolds, Bowser & Huddleston: Vertebrate Animal Remains. Rondeau & Rondeau: An Analysis of the Flaked Stone Assemblage. Gibson: Preliminary Analysis of Shell Artifacts. Jackson: X-ray Fluorescence Determination of the Geological Source of Artifactual Obsidian. Origer: Obsidian Hydration Band Measurements.




28. Archaeological Excavations at CA-SLO-7 and CA-SLO-8, Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California
by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1988).


CA-SLO-7 is a two-component coastal site. The lower component represents limited use during the Early and Middle Periods. The upper component, dating to Phase I of the Late Period, represents a coastal resource exploitation site used during the months of March through June. The main activity during this period was fishing, associated with shellfish gathering and processing, and, to a lesser degree, hunting and lithic reduction.

CA-SLO-8 also relates to Phase I of the Late Period, but exhibits only a limited intensity of activity. The site was used for primary reduction of native chert, probably using fire, exploitation of coastal resources, and, to a lesser degree, hunting.

Both sites are intimately related to CA-SLO-2, a massive village tested by Greenwood during the 1960s.

Appendices: Langenwalter, Bowser & Huddleston: Vertebrate Animal Remains. Rondeau & Rondeau: An Analysis of the Flaked Stone Assemblage. Gibson: An Analysis of Shell Artifacts and Stone Beads.




27. Archaeological Investigations on the Rancho San Clemente, Orange County, California
by Constance Cameron (1989).


This report represents the results of archaeological investigations on the Rancho San Clemente, a 2,000 acre parcel of land located in southern Orange County, California. The purpose of these investigations was to assess which sites on the property could be preserved and to salvage those sites that would be adversely impacted by development.

The archaeological sites within Rancho San Clemente span a time period of 5,000 years and range from large village sites which were reoccupied over thousands of years to small special purpose work areas. Not surprisingly, the village sites are located primarily along the Segunda Deshecha and its several springs and usually contain several components.

Unfortunately, many of the diagnostic artifacts were found either on the surface or from disturbed contexts. Temporal placement is made even more difficult by the absence of material suitable for radiocarbon dating. The people living alone the Segunda Deshecha were probably extended family groups who exploited the many food resources available. None of the faunal remains are complete enough to specify seasonality. The fish that were eaten are available year around, except that schooling species are more numerous in the spring and summer. The seed grinding tools would have been used primarily in the spring, summer, and fall.

The special purpose camp sites and work areas at the upper elevations will continue to remain somewhat of a mystery until the vegetal resources of the past are fully known.

The environment of the Rancho San Clemente area offered a large variety of plant and animal resources which the prehistoric population exploited. These resources were used for food, medicine, dye, woven goods (baskets, nets, matting), shelter, tools, and ornaments.

Some type of sea-worthy craft would have been necessary to catch most of the fish represented in the sites. While the distribution of the plank canoe has been suggested as far south as San Diego, a tule balsa raft or three-bundle balsa would also have been suitable for off-shore fishing. The tules would be available in the stream and material for nets and lines was abundant. The balsas could also have been used to reach the San Mateo Rocks for shellfish and sea mammals.

Appendix: Maxwell: Analysis of Ceramic Material.




26. Archaeological Investigations at CA-SLO-99, Pismo Beach, San Luis Obispo County, California
by Gary S. Breschini, Trudy Haversat and R. Paul Hampson (1988).


CA-SLO-99 is a single-component coastal resource exploitation site located between Pismo Beach and Shell Beach. Excavations in 1985 showed that the site had been used during approximately the last 1,300 years, either for a short duration or intermittently. The primary activities included shellfish gathering and processing, fishing, and possibly hunting. Limited milling activities also took place at the site. Other activities, including possibly bead manufacture and interment, may also have taken place. Cupules are present in one rock feature, but their function is unknown.

Appendices: Bennyhoff: Shell Artifacts [this contribution also appears in No. 23]. Rondeau: An Analysis of Flaked Stone.




25. Archaeological Excavations at CA-SFR-113, the Market Street Shell Midden, San Francisco, California
by Allen G. Pastron and Michael R. Walsh (1988).


This monograph describes and interprets the findings of an intensive program of archaeological excavation and analysis at the southeastern corner of Fifth and Market streets in San Francisco, California--the site of a deeply buried and previously unrecorded Middle Horizon shell midden (CA-SFR-113). CA-SFR-113 represents the second prehistoric site to be discovered and systematically investigated in downtown San Francisco within the last 50 years. Its significance as an archaeological data base derives from two obvious factors: 1) as a result of more than a century of extensive development and urbanization within the northern San Francisco Peninsula, the discovery of a previously unknown prehistoric deposit is, in and of itself, a relatively uncommon occurrence which affords an opportunity to add to, and better interpret, the existing regional archaeological data base; and 2) because the site appears to have been buried beneath shifting aeolian sands since before the appearance of the first Europeans in the San Francisco Bay Area, the shell midden was subjected to little, if any, historic period disturbance and was found to be substantially intact at the time of its discovery in 1986.

Appendices: Beta Analytic: Carbon-14 Analysis. Kaufman: Obsidian Hydration Analysis. Ericson, Walsh, Miller & Kimberlin: Obsidian Source Analysis. Hall & Simons: Mammalian and Avian Fauna. Gobalet: Piscatory Fauna.




24. Human Skeletal Biology: Contributions to the Understanding of California's Prehistoric Populations
edited by Gary D. Richards (1988).


This publication includes the following: Dickinson-McDonald: Femoral Circumference as an Indicator of Sex in Prehistoric Central California Indian Populations. Lieberson: The Effect of Inter-Observer Error on Biological Distance Measures Derived from Non-Metric Trait Research. Anton: Bony Criteria for the Differentiation of Metastatic Carcinoma, Multiple Myeloma, Major Infectious Diseases, and Hyperparathyroidism: A Case Study Approach. Hollimon: Age and Sex Related Incidence of Degenerative Joint Disease in Skeletal Remains from Santa Cruz Island, California. Sutton: Dental Modification in a Burial from the Southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Richards: Human Osteological Remains from CA-SCL-294, A Late Period and Protohistoric Site, San Jose, Santa Clara County, California.




23. Analyses of South-Central Californian Shell Artifacts: Studies from Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara Counties
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1988).


This publication includes the following: Breschini & Haversat: Preface: Archaeological Background. Gibson: Preliminary Analysis of Olivella Shell Beads from CA-MNT-391, Cannery Row, Monterey County, California. Bennyhoff: Shell Artifacts from CA-SLO-99, Pismo Beach, San Luis Obispo County, California [this contribution also appears in No. 26]. Bennyhoff: Shell Artifacts from CA-SCR-93, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, California. Gibson: Preliminary Results of Shell Bead Analysis for CA-SLO-877, Cayucos, San Luis Obispo County, California. Erlandson: Was There Counterfeiting Among the Chumash? An Analysis of Olivella Shell Artifacts from CA-SBA-1582. G. Fenenga: An Analysis of the Shell Beads and Ornaments from CA-MNT-33a, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California.




22. Papers on California Prehistory: 2
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1988).


This publication includes the following: Dixon: Archaeology and Geology in the Calico Mountains: Results of the International Conference on the Calico Project. Chartkoff & Chartkoff: Tests of Subsurface Techniques for Archaeological Site Discovery: Investigations at CA-TUO-1029, -1030 and -1284, Tuolumne County, California. Wallace: Archaeological Investigations at CA-FRE-115, in the Vermilion Valley, Eastern Fresno County, California.




21. Archaeological Excavations at CA-SFR-112, the Stevenson Street Shellmound, San Francisco, California
by Allen G. Pastron and Michael R. Walsh (1988).


This publication describes and interprets the findings of a program of archaeological research conducted in 1986 at the Stevenson Street shellmound, a previously unrecorded prehistoric site in the heart of downtown San Francisco, California. Occupied between A.D. 430-900, this village contains evidence of diverse subsistence activities. Also, because the site was deeply buried prior to European occupation, it was subject to little disturbance during the historic period.




20. Archaeological Investigations at CA-RIV-1179, CA-RIV-2823, and CA-RIV-2827, La Quinta, Riverside County, California
edited by Mark Q. Sutton and Philip J. Wilke (1988).


This publication includes the following: Wilke: The Natural and Cultural Environment. Sutton & Wilke: Archaeological Investigations at the CA-RIV-2823 Rock Cairn Complex. Sutton: Test Excavations at CA-RIV-2827. Sutton: CA-RIV-1179: Site Description, Research Focus, Field Method, Stratigraphy, Features, and Dating. Sutton: Material Culture from CA-RIV-1179. C.D. King: Shell Beads from CA-RIV-1179. Sutton & Yohe: The Human Remains from CA-RIV-1179. Sutton & Yohe: Terrestrial and Avian Faunal Remains from CA-RIV-1179. Swope: Plant Remains Recovered by Flotation from CA-RIV-1179. Farrell: Analysis of Human Coprolites from CA-RIV-1179 and CA-RIV-2827. Follett: Analysis of Fish Remains from Two Archaeological Sites (CA-RIV-1179 and CA-RIV-2827) at La Quinta, Riverside County, California. Wilke & Sutton: Summary and Inferences.




19. Archaeological Investigations at CA-SBA-1809, A Protohistoric Settlement, Goleta, Santa Barbara County, California
by Jerry D. Moore and Michael H. Imwalle (1988).


CA-SBA-1809 is a small, isolated residence near Hospital Creek, Goleta, Santa Barbara County, California, which dates to A.D. 1770. It represents a small Chumash settlement, occupied by fewer than 15 people. The site dates to the period immediately before the Spanish presidio and mission were established; this is reflected in the artifactual assemblage. The sparse but diverse assemblage includes projectile points, drills, and flake tools, shell and glass beads, basketry impressions, cloth and cloth impressions, and faunal remains.

Phase III investigations were designed to retrieve scientific data. An essential element of this research was understanding the nature of a large burned feature radiocarbon dated to A.D. 1770 ± 60. The investigations were required to mitigate impacts which will result from constructing a parking lot on the site. Direct impacts to CA-SBA-1809 have been avoided by project redesign. The 1987 investigations at CA-SBA-1809 were conducted by staff of the Center for Anthropological Studies at the University of California Santa Barbara.




18. The Santa Rita Village Mortuary Complex (CA-ALA-413): Evidence and Implications of a Meganos Intrusion
by Randy S. Wiberg (1988).


The primary goals of this study are twofold: 1) To present evidence for a Meganos intrusion at the Santa Rita Village site and discuss the implications with respect to central California prehistory, and 2) To examine evidence of social ranking as inferred from elements of the mortuary complex and relate the findings to similar previous research.

This investigation reports on a little-known archaeological culture, described by Bennyhoff as the Meganos Aspect. This culture, first identified in northern San Joaquin Valley, is described as a merging of Windmiller Pattern and Berkeley Pattern elements. A brief expansion of this culture into the Diablo and Alameda Districts between the end of the Middle Horizon and the Middle Horizon/Late Augustine Horizon Transition is suggested by Bennyhoff. Two alternative dating schemes for the central California archaeological sequence date this intrusion at 300 B.C. to A.D. 100 or A.D. 500 to A.D. 700. It is argued that the Meganos culture is more widespread and of longer duration than previously thought. Data relevant to the two proposed dating schemes, along with other evidence, are presented to support the argument.

The second goal is to investigate the organizational principles underlying the Santa Rita Village mortuary complex. Past mortuary analyses in central California have related changes in mortuary treatment and cemetery structure to the development of hierarchical social ranking systems.




17. Test Excavation at the May Site (CA-SIS-S7), in Seiad Valley, Northwestern California
by Joseph L. Chartkoff (1988).


The May Site, CA-SIS-S7, is a prehistoric and ethnohistoric settlement on the south side of the Klamath River in Seiad Valley, Siskiyou County, California. Tested in 1972 by Michigan State University, it is the first site along the Klamath River for the more than 100 miles from Iron Gate Reservoir to the town of Orleans to be described extensively in print.

The May Site is a large, complex site covering several dozen acres. This paper reports on the results of a test excavation in one 10,000 square foot part of the site, in which four test units were excavated. They yielded a collection of 334 stone artifacts and a few hundred remains of other kinds. They also revealed a complex natural and cultural stratigraphic profile suggesting multiple periods of occupation. Artifact distribution analysis showed the site to be up to 78 inches deep, and to display three major occupations. The most recent and richest occurred from 36 inches deep to the surface. A smaller layer occurred at depths of 42-54 inches, and a third and somewhat richer occupation occurred at depths of 60-78 inches. Two radiocarbon dates placed the base of the upper occupation at around A.D. 1000, implying occupation from that period up to the 19th century. Obsidian hydration readings and projectile point styles indicated that the two earlier occupations occurred within the proceeding 500 years. Half the lithics were obsidian, implying that the site was involved in an extensive exchange network. The site also gave evidence of being a substantial, permanent village which conducted a good deal of large-scale processing of meat, probably salmon, deer and elk. The site is identified with the Karok ethnographic village of ?asapitvu nup, but its true ethnic affinities are not clear as there is also evidence linking it with Shastan-speaking peoples.




16. Visions of the Sky: Archaeological and Ethnological Studies of California Indian Astronomy
edited by Robert A. Schiffman (1988).


This publication includes the following articles: Krupp: Foreword: Being There. Schiffman: Introduction. Hudson: The Nature of California Indian Astronomy. Hoskinson & Cooper: Sapaksi: Archaeoastronomical Investigation of an Inland Chumash Site. Mayer: Sky Games in California Petroglyphs. Bracher: Solar Eclipse Dating of Chumash Rock Art. Hudson: The "Classical Assumption" in Light of Chumash Astronomy. Romani, Larson, Romani & Benson: Astronomy, Myth, and Ritual in the West San Fernando Valley. Harper-Slaboszewicz & Cooper: CA-KER-17: A Possible Tubatulabal Winter Solstice Observatory. Schiffman: A Native American Solstice Observatory: The Observation, Recording, and Prediction of Solstices in the Southern Sierra Nevada. Trupe, Rafter & Turner: Ring of Pictured Stones: Astronomical Connotations of a Rock Art Site in the Eastern Mojave Desert: A Preliminary Report of Investigations at CA-SBR-291.




15. Cultural Ecology on the Southern California Coast at 5500 B.P.: A Comparative Analysis of CA-SBA-75
by John McVey Erlandson, with contributions by J. Pjerou, Thomas K. Rockwell, and Phillip L. Walker (1988).


This report presents the results of an archaeological investigation conducted during 1983 and 1984 by the Office of Public Archaeology, Social Process Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara. It was conducted as part of a continuing multi-disciplinary study of the archaeology of Tecolote Canyon. The scope of the investigation was relatively small, nonetheless, valuable data were recovered and analyzed. The significance of this information has been enhanced by comparison to several contemporary sites on the Santa Barbara coast. Comparisons have also been made to data from other Tecolote Canyon sites that were occupied later in the prehistoric sequence. The Tecolote Canyon area is especially appropriate for comparative analysis because of: (1) the continuity of prehistoric settlement around the canyon mouth; (2) the relatively well documented archaeological record of the area; (3) the diversity of the many sites in the canyon; and (4) the relatively good preservation of these sites.




14. An Introduction to the Archaeology of the Western Mojave Desert, California
by Mark Q. Sutton (1988).


The prehistory of the western Mojave Desert is poorly understood. As late as 1977 there was only one published report and two unpublished manuscripts available documenting archaeological work from the entire region. Since 1977 numerous reports, papers, and articles have appeared. While this is a welcome step, much of this literature is in relatively obscure sources such as government or environmental reports. While the available data on the area have greatly increased, they have been poorly integrated into the study of southern California and Great Basin prehistory. This lack of publisheddata is the primary problem in attempting to understand the prehistory ofthe region.

The purpose of this study is to summarize and synthesize the available data on the archaeology of the western Mojave Desert and to provide a framework for comparison with other materials from southern California and the southwestern Great Basin. More modest goals of this study are to present a preliminary outline of the prehistoric cultural development in the western Mojave Desert, to begin to integrate the archaeology of the region with the remainder of southern California, and to discuss some recent theoretical developments. This study is not intended to be the definitive work on western Mojave Desert archaeology. Many of the ideas and thoughts presented here will undoubtedly be discarded and/or revised by subsequent research. The purpose of this study is to make this part of the archaeology of the western Mojave available to other researchers.




13. Intrasite Variability in Early and Middle Period Subsistence Remains from CA-SBA-143, Goleta, Santa Barbara County, California
by Roger H. Colten (1987).


This report analyzes the collection from CA-SBA-143, a shell midden in the Goleta area of Santa Barbara County dated to the Early and Middle Periods. The focus of the analysis is subsistence, with particular regard for differences in molluscan and vertebrate faunal remains between two chronologically separateportions of the site. A general diet breadth model of optimal foraging theory is used as a basis for hypotheses about subsistence change, and a series of test implications for faunal remains and chipped and ground stone artifacts are generated. Faunal remains are ranked according to energetic efficiency by net return per individual procured, and ease of procurement. The general diet breadth model is supported by the marine faunal remains. California mussel was emphasized early in the diet. The relatively large Washington clam was emphasized earlier than the smaller hardshell cockle, a mollusc from a similar habitat. The data indicate a slight shift toward emphasis on estuarine shellfish species. Fish also fit the general diet breadth model, with Soupfin shark abundant in the earlier parts of the site, and smaller species most frequent in the later part of the site. Deer and other ungulates increase in frequency through time, but the significance of this increase is difficult to evaluate, given the small sample sizes. The artifact assemblage indicates an increasing number of tools as diet breadth expands. Both chipped and ground stone tools increase as vertebrate faunal diversity increases, suggesting a change in tool assemblages as diet changes. These data are relevant for documenting subsistence change through time, and for elucidating prehistoric settlement patterns. The final chapter includes an evaluation of the hypothesis that Milling Stone Horizon people were sedentary.




12. Archaeological Investigations at CA-FRE-1333, in the White Creek Drainage, Western Fresno County, California
by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1987).


During September, 1986, Archaeological Consulting, conducted limited test excavations at CA-FRE-1333, a small rockshelter and associated midden in the White Creek area of western Fresno County, California.

The investigations suggest that CA-FRE-1333 is a "two-component" site. The deposit in the main rockshelter represents the Late Period, Phase 2. Use of the site during this period (circa 450 to 150 years B.P.) appears to have been limited. The rockshelter probably served as a small campsite, and most likely was visited only occasionally for shelter while gathering resources or passing through the area. The primary midden below the rockshelter represents the Late Period Phase 1 (circa 1500 to 450 B.P.). During this period the site functioned as a small village or base camp. Activities included food procurement (probably gathering, fishing, hunting, and trapping), food preparation (acorn and seed grinding, butchering, cooking, etc.), interment, manufacture and maintenance of bone tools and a variety of flaked stone tools, and return to and use of the site over an extended period of time (nearly 1,000 years). This suggests a continuity of tradition on the part of a group rather than isolated activities by individuals.

Appendices: Langenwalter: Vertebrate Animal Remains. Rondeau & Rondeau: An Analysis of the Flaked Stone Assemblage. Gibson: An Analysis of Shell and Stone Beads.




11. California Lithic Studies: 1
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1987).


This publication includes the following: Parsons: Thermal Alteration of Monterey Banded Chert: An Analytical Study with Emphasis on the Archaeological Sites of the Central California Coast. Rondeau: Bipolar Reduction in California. Singer: Comments on Lithic Collections from CA-SBR-875, CA-SBR-5230, and CA-SBR-5231, in the Manix Basin, San Bernardino County, California.




10. Papers on the Archaeology of the Mojave Desert
edited by Mark Q. Sutton (1987).


This publication includes the following: Sutton: Introduction. Lord: The Surface Archaeology of CA-SBR-1554, Black Butte, Mojave Desert, California. Schroth: The Use of Mesquite in the Great Basin. Taylor, Taylor, Alcorn, Weil & Tambunga: Investigations Regarding Aboriginal Stone Mound Features in the Mojave Desert: Excavations at CA-SBR-221 and CA-SBR-3136, San Bernardino County, California. Sutton: Excavations at CA-SBR-3829, the Denning Springs Rockshelter, Avawatz Mountains, San Bernardino County, California. Yohe: An Analysis of the Archaeofauna from CA-SBR-3829, the Denning Springs Rockshelter, San Bernardino County, California. Jenkins: The Ceramics from CA-SBR-3829, the Denning Springs Rockshelter, San Bernardino County, California.




9. Archaeological Investigations at the Owl Canyon Site (CA-SBR-3801), Mojave Desert, California
by Mark Q. Sutton (1986).


This publication represents the final report on emergency data recovery at CA-SBR-3801. The work was undertaken in December 1979 for the Bureau of Land Management.

From the preface: "The data recovered at the Owl Canyon site provide important insights into the prehistory of the Mojave Desert region. It is unfortunate that this recovery program was of an emergency nature. One should not be confused, however, into thinking that mitigation projects cannot or do not provide data useful to archaeological research, or that emergency recovery cannot be conducted in a careful manner. It seems probable that much of the archaeological data obtained from the California Desert will be generated by mitigation projects."

Appendices include the following: Langenwalter: Vertebrate Animal Remains from Surface Collections. Roush: Overview of Plant and Wildlife. Spencer: Debitage Analysis.




8. Papers on California Prehistory: 1
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1986).


This publication includes: Breschini & Haversat: Archaeological Investigations at CA-MNT-149, in the Del Monte Forest, Monterey County, California. Sweeney: Vertebrate Remains from CA-SCR-35, Santa Cruz County, California. Wallace: Trial Excavations at CA-SBR-5545 and -5547 [Saratoga Springs 3 and 5] in the Saratoga Springs Area, Death Valley National Monument, California. Langenwalter: Appendix A: Faunal Remains from CA-SBR-5547. Appendix B: Concordance of Site Designations.




7. Review of the Prehistory of the Santa Clara Valley Region, California
by A.B. Elsasser (1986).


Elsasser's review of the prehistory of the Santa Clara Valley region includes the following chapters: Introduction; Hypotheses of Central California Prehistory; Archaeological Research in the Santa Clara Valley Region; and Conclusions. It also includes a bibliography.

Following Elsasser's paper are eight reviews: Cartier: The Good, the Bad, and the CRM of the Elsasser Review. Wallace: Towards an Understanding of Santa Clara Valley Prehistory. Bard & Busby: The Central California Prehistoric Culture Sequence: A Preliminary Review of Implications for Santa Clara Valley Prehistory. T.F. King: Laying Eggs in the Pigeonholes. Breschini & Haversat: Bottle Washing and Button Sorting in Santa Clara Valley Archaeology. Milliken: Comments on "Prehistory of the Santa Clara Valley Region." Roop: Some Comments on Elsasser's "Review of the Prehistory of the Santa Clara Valley Region, California." Hildebrandt: Reply to Elsasser. The publication concludes with Elsasser's rebuttal and response to the various reviews.




6. Symposium: A New Look at Some Old Sites
Papers from the Symposium Organized by Francis A. Riddell Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for California Archaeology, March 23-26, 1983, San Diego, California (1986).


Articles in this publication are: Hoover: A New Look at Old Sites: SBa-53 and SBa-54. Glassow, Johnson & Erlandson: The Archaeology of Mescalitan Island and the Concept of Canaliño. Wallace: Archaeological Research at Malaga Cove. True: Molpa, a Late Prehistoric Site in Northern San Diego County: The San Luis Rey Complex, 1983. Kowta: Grist for the Mills of History: LAn-1 and the Milling Stone Horizon. Elsasser: Archaeology on Gunther Island (Site Hum-67). Meighan: Review of the Borax Lake Site (Lak-36). Olsen: History of a Central California Site or What Happened at King Brown (Sac-29). Bennyhoff: The Emeryville Site (ALA-309), Viewed 93 Years Later. Fredrickson: Buena Vista Lake Revisited.




5. Ethnography and Folklore of the Indians of Northwestern California: A Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography
by Joan Berman (1986).


This literature review has been prepared to provide convenient bibliographic access to the large body of published material on the Indians of Northwestern California, but in many ways the most interesting facet of this material is what it tells us of the authors and their backgrounds rather than of the Indians they observed and studied.

For the purposes of this bibliography, "Northwestern California" is defined as including the Tolowa, Yurok, Karuk, Hupa, Chilula and Wiyot Indians. This follows the practice of Murdock's Ethnographic Bibliography of North America which groups these tribes as "Oregon Seaboard," leaving Chimariko and the Southern Athapaskans in the "California" classification. A further reason for adhering to this definition is that the literature on these groups is voluminous, whereas the literature on the adjacent groups is quite limited and reasonably accessible through standard sources.

The disproportionate attention devoted to the Northwestern California Indians can be attributed in part to the interesting "language/culture" question: these contiguous peoples have distinct linguistic origins (Algonkian, Athapaskan and Hokan), yet share a similar culture which differs from that of the rest of California and shows marked similarities to the culture of the North Coast and Pacific Northwest groups from whom they are separated by many miles and different culture groups.




4. Mechanisms and Trends in the Decline of the Costanoan Indian Population of Central California: Health and Nutrition in Pre-contact and Mission Period Environments
by Ann Lucy Wiener Stodder (1986).


The decimation of the California Indian population during the Mission Period was due to many interrelated causes, but the results were clear. Among the Costanoan Indians of the Monterey and San Francisco Bay areas, the population dropped by 80% during the Mission Period. This study focuses on the change from traditional adaptation to mission conditions. Both environments are discussed, with an emphasis on nutrition and health.

Age and sex-selective patterns in mortality and depressed birth and fertility rates constituted the mechanisms of population decline. Selective pressures were exerted on infants, children, and women of childbearing age. These pressures also acted upon the adult male. The food producing labor was more sustained than the hunting and gathering activities they were accustomed to, and although they may have had more access to wild foods and meat, their diet was marginal. While the men were the primary food producers for the missions, they were not the food providers for their families. In terms of their output of labor and energy, the food energy returned to the Indians in their diets represented an immense loss, and was inadequate for the maintenance and reproduction of their population and for the survival and growth of their children.




3. Papers on Central California Prehistory: 1
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1984).


This publication includes the following: Pritchard: Preliminary Archaeological Investigations at CA-MNT-101, Monterey, California. Hildebrandt, et al.: Prehistoric Hunting Patterns in Central California. Breschini & Haversat: Archaeological Investigations at CA-SCL-78, Near Morgan Hill, Santa Clara County, California.




2. Analysis of the Archaeological Assemblage from CA-SCR-35, Santa Cruz County, California
Diane P. Gifford and Francine Marshal, gen. eds. (with Anthropology Class 193, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1979) (1984).

This report presents a summary and discussion of some 250 kg of archaeological materials recovered from CA-SCR-35, in Santa Cruz County, California. It constitutes one of the largest samples yet analyzed from Santa Cruz County. CA-SCR-35 is a very rich site, especially in faunal remains, and contains a vast amount of data relevant to understanding the lifeways of the native peoples of the northern Monterey Bay.




1. A History of Central California Archaeology, 1880-1940
by Arlean H. Towne (1984).


From the author's preface: In 1970, I posed the question--how did archaeology in California achieve its present level of importance and acceptance? I discovered that a major contribution to California archaeology was made by Sacramento Jr. College in the 1930s. I limited my research to Central California and formulated four basic areas of inquiry: the history of Central California archaeology, the individuals and institutions involved, the methods used in recording and reporting data, and the contributions made by this regional activity.

Through initial research I discovered that Sacramento Jr. College supported a program in archaeological field work from 1933-1940. The evidence uncovered and analyzed by these investigations resulted in a definitive classification of prehistoric Indian cultures in Central California. They confirmed the existence of three major cultural sequences or horizons and overturned the belief that Indian culture had been static since the initial occupation of California.

In order to place Sacramento Junior College in its historical perspective, I found it necessary to include a general overview of paraprofessional activity in Central California and the work of the Anthropology Department of the University of California, Berkeley. Because it set as its priorities field work in Central and South American and ethnographic reconstruction in California, the Department neglected archaeological field work in California.

Two men emerged who had significant effects on the history of Central California archaeology. Each contributed in his own way; each possessed a very different attitude toward the importance of archaeological excavations. Alfred L. Kroeber was associated with the University of California Department of Anthropology from 1901 to 1946, but his influence on California archaeology will be felt indefinitely. Jeremiah B. Lillard, President of Sacramento Junior College from 1923 to 1940, initiated the first formal field class in archaeology in California.

This work also includes brief biographies of Franklin Fenenga, James Bennyhoff, Paul Ezell, Elmer Dawson, Charles McKee, Dorothy Mix, and Louis Payen. This work is a must for anyone wishing to learn more about the development of archaeology in Central California and the individuals who played major roles in that development.




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