50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5
|51.||Listening to the Raven: The Southern California Ethnography of Constance Goddard DuBois|
edited by Don Laylander (2004).
|50.||Archaeological Investigations at CA-SCL-674, The Rubino Site, San Jose, Santa Clara County, California, Vol. II. Human Skeletal Biology of CA-SCL-674|
by Diane L. Grady, Kate A. Latham and Valerie A. Andrushko (2001).
|49.||Archaeological Data Recovery at CA-SCR-44, at the Site of the Lakeview Middle School, Watsonville, Santa Cruz County, California|
Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (2000)
We believe that the information recovered from this site shows that one or more individuals associated with the Kuksu system, bearing distinctive artifacts, made the journey from the area of CA-CCO-138, in eastern Contra Costa County, to the Monterey Bay sometime around A.D. 1500.
Includes ten color plates.
|48.||Archaeological Evaluation of Sites CA-MNT-798, CA-MNT-799 and CA-MNT-800, in the Pfeiffer Beach Day Use Area, Big Sur, Monterey County, California
by Robert L. Edwards, Gary S. Breschini, Trudy Haversat, and Charr Simpson-Smith (2000)
|47.||Early Ethnography of the Californias: 1533-1825
by Don Laylander (2000)
Strangers came to the Californias from most of the countries of Europe and from several other parts of the Americas. They were impelled by a variety of motives, including greed, piety, and ambition, and with a variety of expectations as to what they would find. They saw different portions of the region, at different time periods, within different contexts. When the outsiders committed their observations to paper, they did so in different formats, and they directed their comments toward different audiences. Uniformity in their views of the Native Californians is not to be expected, both because of differences in the realities which they were attempting to describe and differences in the knowledge and biases of the reporters. It would be easy to prove that none of the observers did full justice to the subject. Some elements of their descriptions are demonstrably false. Yet the testimony in the early accounts is indispensable, and if it is weighed critically, it can offer valuable and interesting insights.
This study addresses the ethnographic contributions concerning the Native Californians which were made between the region's first accidental discovery by a Spanish mutineer, Fortún Jiménez, in 1533 and the description written by the Franciscan missionary Gerónimo Boscana around 1825, shortly after Mexico had won its independence from Spain. The focus of interest is the character of native lifeways as they existed prior to or outside the range of European influences.
|46.||The Coyote Hills Area, Alameda County, California: A Settlement Pattern and Artifact Distribution Study
by Glen B. Wilson (1999)
|45.||Papers on California Prehistory: 5
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1997).
|44.||Contributions to the Linguistic Prehistory of Central and Baja California
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1997)
|43.||The Shobhan Paul Site (CA-LAN-958): Archaeological Investigations of a Coastal Millingstone Horizon Occupation
edited by Roy A. Salls (1995).
|42.||The Archaeology of Las Montanas (CA-SDI-10246): A Paleo-Economic Interpretation of a Milling Stone Horizon Site, San Diego County, California
by Robert M. Yohe II and Paul G. Chace (1995).
The Las Montanas site (CA-SDI-10246) was initially recognized in 1979 during a survey of the Las Montanas Estates properties. The site included a dispersed array of archaeological debris, and had sufficient potential significance to warrant further investigation.
In July and August 1985 limited archaeological investigations were conducted. Artifactual materials exposed across the surface were collected, and two one-meter-square test units were excavated. Based on these investigations, a detailed report was prepared. It concluded that this was a small camp, a special activity location for plant processing which included a bedrock platform for milling or pulping and possibly a roasting oven. The site area included a meager artifact assemblage, primarily milling equipment and core tools, which were considered to be consistent with materials encountered in other sites occupied by people of the ancient Encinitas Tradition.
The County's Staff Archaeologist, Ronald May, concluded that the site should still be considered unique, with additional potential to contribute to scientific research. Robert M. Yohe, II was brought onto the team to direct the daily operations of the subsequent archaeological data recovery project. In late August 1988 a program was undertaken to accurately determine the boundaries of subsurface archaeological deposits. Soil chemistry studies were conducted, and a series of backhoe trenches were excavated. Based on these data, a comprehensive excavation with a 16% hand-excavated sample of the site deposit was conducted. The investigations commenced in late September and concluded on October 28, 1988.
Finally, the archaeological site was carefully graded to bedrock and the soil deposits exposed over the knoll were carefully monitored for archaeological remains. No new kinds of archaeological features were uncovered, but many additional stone artifacts were documented and incorporated into the collection.
Appendices include: Cerreto: Phosphate Analysis. E.J. Lawlor: Phytolith Analysis. Newman: Immunological Analysis. T.L. Jackson: X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis. Gutzler: Palynology. Yohe: Floral Remains. Yohe: Terrestrial Vertebrate and Avian Remains. Chace & Bleitz: Fish Remains.
|41.||Papers on California Prehistory: 4
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1995).
|40.||Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, On Ballast Point, San Diego County, California
by Dennis Gallegos and Carolyn Kyle (1998)
|39.||The Archaeological Collection from CA-ALA-329, the Ryan Mound, Alameda County, California
by Glen B. Wilson (1993).
On California Charmstones
by Albert B. Elsasser and Peter T. Rhode (1996).
|Archaeological Investigations of Some Significant Sites on the Central Coast of California
edited by Herb Dallas, Jr. and Gary S. Breschini (1992).
|Baseline Archaeological Studies at Rancho San Carlos, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California
by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1992).
The results suggest that sites CA-MNT-1485/H and CA-MNT-1486/H were occupied at about the same time, beginning in the middle or late portions of the Middle Period and continuing through the Late Period. This represents occupation for a period of approximately 1,000 years prior to the arrival of the Spanish in 1770. These sites appear to represent two loci of a dispersed occupation area, and almost certainly were associated with the ethnographic village of Echilat.
This project provided the first detailed examination of a Late Period residential base in the Monterey Peninsula area. Data from the excavations has supplemented background research and data from other studies, and has allowed us to make new interpretations of the Rumsenšs seasonal round. It appears that the earlier view of five villages, each somewhat isolated from the other, was incorrect. There was considerable interaction between the villages; in fact, the Rumsen population appears to have been very mobile within its territory.
Appendices: Breschini & Haversat: Archaeological Background for the Monterey Peninsula Area. Milliken: Ethnographic and Ethnohistoric Background for the San Francisquito Flat Vicinity, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California. Gibson: Analysis of Shell and Stone Beads and Ornaments from CA-MNT-1485 and CA-MNT-1486, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California. Rondeau & Rondeau: Lithic Analysis of Collections from Three Archaeological Sites, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California. Langenwalter & Bowser: Vertebrate Animal Remains from Three Inland Late Period Archaeological Sites, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California. Jackson & Jackson: X-ray Fluorescence Analysis and Obsidian Hydration Rim Measurement of Artifact Obsidian from CA-MNT-1481, -1485, and -1486, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California. Miksicek: Plant Remains from CA-MNT-1485 and CA-MNT--1486: A Pilot Study. Breschini & Haversat: pH Analyses for CA-MNT-1481 and CA-MNT-1486, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California. Somers: Geophysical Studies for CA-MNT-1485 and CA-MNT-1486, at San Francisquito Flat, Carmel Valley, Monterey County, California.
|35.||Archaic Milling Cultures of the Southern San Francisco Bay Region
by Richard T. Fitzgerald, Jr. (1993).
|34.||Archaeology on the Northern Channel Islands of California: Studies of Subsistence, Economics, and Social Organization
edited by Michael A. Glassow (1993).
|33.||Papers on California Prehistory: 3
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1991).
|32.||Papers on the Archaeology of the Mojave Desert: 2
edited by Mark Q. Sutton (1991).
|31.||Archaeological and Ethnohistoric Investigations at CA-NEV-194, near Rough and Ready, Nevada County, California
by A.G. Pastron, M.R. Walsh and C.W. Clewlow, Jr. (1990).
Sites like CA-NEV-194 may have been overlooked in the past simply because they tend to be characterized by limited assemblages of material culture, and are therefore often difficult to identify. Also, they may have seemed less worthy of excavation than extensive, obviously rich, prehistoric village sites. In addition, until relatively recently, many prehistorians have often interpreted the presence of historic artifacts in Native American archaeological deposits as evidence of disturbance or intrusion rather than a primary indicator of a potentially rewarding research effort.
Investigation of CA-NEV-194 allows us to frame essential questions regarding the lifeways of the Nisenan in the Grass Valley area during a period of drastic transition and dislocation, and to begin to relate the often sketchy
historical record with archaeological data. In spite of the fact that this
monograph chronicles a small, seemingly minor contact era site, it is hoped
the issues raised by the present research will stimulate further interest
and study into a little known but important aspect of California history and
ethnohistory. Indeed, one of the principal purposes of this research is
to evaluate and disseminate information drawn from a variety of sources
that will hopefully be of use to other investigators studying similar sites
in the region.
|30.||A Taxonomic Analysis of Avian Faunal Remains from Three Archaeological Sites in Marina Del Rey, Los Angeles County, California
by Joan C. Brown (1989).
|29.||Archaeological Excavations at CA-MNT-108, at Fisherman's Wharf, Monterey, Monterey County, California
by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1989).
CA-MNT-108 was occupied about 4800 B.P. and largely abandoned by 2400 B.P. It appears to have been the main Early Period residential base on the Monterey Peninsula during the summer months, and may have been a "village center" from which a chief, or the equivalent, controlled the economic life of the community. It has a material density approaching an order of magnitude greater than any other site examined on the Monterey Peninsula. Compared with CA-MNT-391, on Cannery Row, CA-MNT-108 has, in the same volume of soil, approximately 6 to 10 times as many shell beads, 16 times as much lithic debitage, 52 times as much fish bone, and 7.8 times as much non-fish bone. The early obsidian rim readings are currently unique on the Monterey Peninsula.
Based on the vertebrate remains, particularly fish otoliths it appears that CA-MNT-108 was occupied during the summer, from perhaps early May through early October.
The inhabitants of CA-MNT-108 appear to have been foragers rather than collectors. However, they do not compare exactly with Binford's model or with the attributes extracted from that model by Dietz. The density of cultural materials among foragers is expected to be relatively low, but CA-MNT-108 exhibits the highest densities of cultural materials yet obtained on the Monterey Peninsula. The bone densities are among the highest documented in California.
Appendices: Langenwalter, Reynolds, Bowser & Huddleston: Vertebrate Animal Remains. Rondeau & Rondeau: An Analysis of the Flaked Stone Assemblage. Gibson: Preliminary Analysis of Shell Artifacts. Jackson: X-ray Fluorescence Determination of the Geological Source of Artifactual Obsidian. Origer: Obsidian Hydration Band Measurements.
|28.||Archaeological Excavations at CA-SLO-7 and CA-SLO-8, Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California
by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1988).
CA-SLO-8 also relates to Phase I of the Late Period, but exhibits only a limited intensity of activity. The site was used for primary reduction of native chert, probably using fire, exploitation of coastal resources, and, to a lesser degree, hunting.
Both sites are intimately related to CA-SLO-2, a massive village tested by Greenwood during the 1960s.
Appendices: Langenwalter, Bowser & Huddleston: Vertebrate Animal Remains. Rondeau & Rondeau: An Analysis of the Flaked Stone Assemblage. Gibson: An Analysis of Shell Artifacts and Stone Beads.
|27.||Archaeological Investigations on the Rancho San Clemente, Orange County, California
by Constance Cameron (1989).
The archaeological sites within Rancho San Clemente span a time period of 5,000 years and range from large village sites which were reoccupied over thousands of years to small special purpose work areas. Not surprisingly, the village sites are located primarily along the Segunda Deshecha and its several springs and usually contain several components.
Unfortunately, many of the diagnostic artifacts were found either on the surface or from disturbed contexts. Temporal placement is made even more difficult by the absence of material suitable for radiocarbon dating. The people living alone the Segunda Deshecha were probably extended family groups who exploited the many food resources available. None of the faunal remains are complete enough to specify seasonality. The fish that were eaten are available year around, except that schooling species are more numerous in the spring and summer. The seed grinding tools would have been used primarily in the spring, summer, and fall.
The special purpose camp sites and work areas at the upper elevations will continue to remain somewhat of a mystery until the vegetal resources of the past are fully known.
The environment of the Rancho San Clemente area offered a large variety of plant and animal resources which the prehistoric population exploited. These resources were used for food, medicine, dye, woven goods (baskets, nets, matting), shelter, tools, and ornaments.
Some type of sea-worthy craft would have been necessary to catch most of the fish represented in the sites. While the distribution of the plank canoe has been suggested as far south as San Diego, a tule balsa raft or three-bundle balsa would also have been suitable for off-shore fishing. The tules would be available in the stream and material for nets and lines was abundant. The balsas could also have been used to reach the San Mateo Rocks for shellfish and sea mammals.
Appendix: Maxwell: Analysis of Ceramic Material.
|26.||Archaeological Investigations at CA-SLO-99, Pismo Beach, San Luis Obispo County, California
by Gary S. Breschini, Trudy Haversat and R. Paul Hampson (1988).
Appendices: Bennyhoff: Shell Artifacts [this contribution also appears in No. 23]. Rondeau: An Analysis of Flaked Stone.
|25.||Archaeological Excavations at CA-SFR-113, the Market Street Shell Midden, San Francisco, California
by Allen G. Pastron and Michael R. Walsh (1988).
Appendices: Beta Analytic: Carbon-14 Analysis. Kaufman: Obsidian Hydration Analysis. Ericson, Walsh, Miller & Kimberlin: Obsidian Source Analysis. Hall & Simons: Mammalian and Avian Fauna. Gobalet: Piscatory Fauna.
|24.||Human Skeletal Biology: Contributions to the Understanding of California's Prehistoric Populations
edited by Gary D. Richards (1988).
|23.||Analyses of South-Central Californian Shell Artifacts: Studies from Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara Counties
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1988).
|22.||Papers on California Prehistory: 2
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1988).
|21.||Archaeological Excavations at CA-SFR-112, the Stevenson Street Shellmound, San Francisco, California
by Allen G. Pastron and Michael R. Walsh (1988).
|20.||Archaeological Investigations at CA-RIV-1179, CA-RIV-2823, and CA-RIV-2827, La Quinta, Riverside County, California
edited by Mark Q. Sutton and Philip J. Wilke (1988).
|19.||Archaeological Investigations at CA-SBA-1809, A Protohistoric Settlement, Goleta, Santa Barbara County, California
by Jerry D. Moore and Michael H. Imwalle (1988).
Phase III investigations were designed to retrieve scientific data. An essential element of this research was understanding the nature of a large burned feature radiocarbon dated to A.D. 1770 ± 60. The investigations were required to mitigate impacts which will result from constructing a parking lot on the site. Direct impacts to CA-SBA-1809 have been avoided by project redesign. The 1987 investigations at CA-SBA-1809 were conducted by staff of the Center for Anthropological Studies at the University of California Santa Barbara.
|18.||The Santa Rita Village Mortuary Complex (CA-ALA-413): Evidence and Implications of a Meganos Intrusion
by Randy S. Wiberg (1988).
This investigation reports on a little-known archaeological culture, described by Bennyhoff as the Meganos Aspect. This culture, first identified in northern San Joaquin Valley, is described as a merging of Windmiller Pattern and Berkeley Pattern elements. A brief expansion of this culture into the Diablo and Alameda Districts between the end of the Middle Horizon and the Middle Horizon/Late Augustine Horizon Transition is suggested by Bennyhoff. Two alternative dating schemes for the central California archaeological sequence date this intrusion at 300 B.C. to A.D. 100 or A.D. 500 to A.D. 700. It is argued that the Meganos culture is more widespread and of longer duration than previously thought. Data relevant to the two proposed dating schemes, along with other evidence, are presented to support the argument.
The second goal is to investigate the organizational principles underlying the Santa Rita Village mortuary complex. Past mortuary analyses in central California have related changes in mortuary treatment and cemetery structure to the development of hierarchical social ranking systems.
|17.||Test Excavation at the May Site (CA-SIS-S7), in Seiad Valley, Northwestern California
by Joseph L. Chartkoff (1988).
The May Site is a large, complex site covering several dozen acres. This paper reports on the results of a test excavation in one 10,000 square foot part of the site, in which four test units were excavated. They yielded a collection of 334 stone artifacts and a few hundred remains of other kinds. They also revealed a complex natural and cultural stratigraphic profile suggesting multiple periods of occupation. Artifact distribution analysis showed the site to be up to 78 inches deep, and to display three major occupations. The most recent and richest occurred from 36 inches deep to the surface. A smaller layer occurred at depths of 42-54 inches, and a third and somewhat richer occupation occurred at depths of 60-78 inches. Two radiocarbon dates placed the base of the upper occupation at around A.D. 1000, implying occupation from that period up to the 19th century. Obsidian hydration readings and projectile point styles indicated that the two earlier occupations occurred within the proceeding 500 years. Half the lithics were obsidian, implying that the site was involved in an extensive exchange network. The site also gave evidence of being a substantial, permanent village which conducted a good deal of large-scale processing of meat, probably salmon, deer and elk. The site is identified with the Karok ethnographic village of ?asapitvu nup, but its true ethnic affinities are not clear as there is also evidence linking it with Shastan-speaking peoples.
|16.||Visions of the Sky: Archaeological and Ethnological Studies of California Indian Astronomy
edited by Robert A. Schiffman (1988).
|15.||Cultural Ecology on the Southern California Coast at 5500 B.P.: A Comparative Analysis of CA-SBA-75
by John McVey Erlandson, with contributions by J. Pjerou, Thomas K. Rockwell, and Phillip L. Walker (1988).
|14.||An Introduction to the Archaeology of the Western Mojave Desert, California
by Mark Q. Sutton (1988).
The purpose of this study is to summarize and synthesize the available data on the archaeology of the western Mojave Desert and to provide a framework for comparison with other materials from southern California and the southwestern Great Basin. More modest goals of this study are to present a preliminary outline of the prehistoric cultural development in the western Mojave Desert, to begin to integrate the archaeology of the region with the remainder of southern California, and to discuss some recent theoretical developments. This study is not intended to be the definitive work on western Mojave Desert archaeology. Many of the ideas and thoughts presented here will undoubtedly be discarded and/or revised by subsequent research. The purpose of this study is to make this part of the archaeology of the western Mojave available to other researchers.
|13.||Intrasite Variability in Early and Middle Period Subsistence Remains from CA-SBA-143, Goleta, Santa Barbara County, California
by Roger H. Colten (1987).
|12.||Archaeological Investigations at CA-FRE-1333, in the
White Creek Drainage, Western Fresno County, California
by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1987).
The investigations suggest that CA-FRE-1333 is a "two-component" site. The deposit in the main rockshelter represents the Late Period, Phase 2. Use of the site during this period (circa 450 to 150 years B.P.) appears to have been limited. The rockshelter probably served as a small campsite, and most likely was visited only occasionally for shelter while gathering resources or passing through the area. The primary midden below the rockshelter represents the Late Period Phase 1 (circa 1500 to 450 B.P.). During this period the site functioned as a small village or base camp. Activities included food procurement (probably gathering, fishing, hunting, and trapping), food preparation (acorn and seed grinding, butchering, cooking, etc.), interment, manufacture and maintenance of bone tools and a variety of flaked stone tools, and return to and use of the site over an extended period of time (nearly 1,000 years). This suggests a continuity of tradition on the part of a group rather than isolated activities by individuals.
Appendices: Langenwalter: Vertebrate Animal Remains. Rondeau & Rondeau: An Analysis of the Flaked Stone Assemblage. Gibson: An Analysis of Shell and Stone Beads.
|11.||California Lithic Studies: 1
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1987).
|10.||Papers on the Archaeology of the Mojave Desert
edited by Mark Q. Sutton (1987).
|9.||Archaeological Investigations at the Owl Canyon Site (CA-SBR-3801), Mojave Desert, California
by Mark Q. Sutton (1986).
From the preface: "The data recovered at the Owl Canyon site provide important insights into the prehistory of the Mojave Desert region. It is unfortunate that this recovery program was of an emergency nature. One should not be confused, however, into thinking that mitigation projects cannot or do not provide data useful to archaeological research, or that emergency recovery cannot be conducted in a careful manner. It seems probable that much of the archaeological data obtained from the California Desert will be generated by mitigation projects."
Appendices include the following: Langenwalter: Vertebrate Animal Remains from Surface Collections. Roush: Overview of Plant and Wildlife. Spencer: Debitage Analysis.
|8.|| Papers on California Prehistory: 1
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1986).
|7.||Review of the Prehistory of the Santa Clara Valley Region,
by A.B. Elsasser (1986).
Following Elsasser's paper are eight reviews: Cartier: The Good, the Bad, and the CRM of the Elsasser Review. Wallace: Towards an Understanding of Santa Clara Valley Prehistory. Bard & Busby: The Central California Prehistoric Culture Sequence: A Preliminary Review of Implications for Santa Clara Valley Prehistory. T.F. King: Laying Eggs in the Pigeonholes. Breschini & Haversat: Bottle Washing and Button Sorting in Santa Clara Valley Archaeology. Milliken: Comments on "Prehistory of the Santa Clara Valley Region." Roop: Some Comments on Elsasser's "Review of the Prehistory of the Santa Clara Valley Region, California." Hildebrandt: Reply to Elsasser. The publication concludes with Elsasser's rebuttal and response to the various reviews.
|6.||Symposium: A New Look at Some Old Sites
Papers from the Symposium Organized by Francis A. Riddell Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for California Archaeology, March 23-26, 1983, San Diego, California (1986).
|5.||Ethnography and Folklore of the Indians of Northwestern California: A Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography
by Joan Berman (1986).
For the purposes of this bibliography, "Northwestern California" is defined as including the Tolowa, Yurok, Karuk, Hupa, Chilula and Wiyot Indians. This follows the practice of Murdock's Ethnographic Bibliography of North America which groups these tribes as "Oregon Seaboard," leaving Chimariko and the Southern Athapaskans in the "California" classification. A further reason for adhering to this definition is that the literature on these groups is voluminous, whereas the literature on the adjacent groups is quite limited and reasonably accessible through standard sources.
The disproportionate attention devoted to the Northwestern California Indians can be attributed in part to the interesting "language/culture" question: these contiguous peoples have distinct linguistic origins (Algonkian, Athapaskan and Hokan), yet share a similar culture which differs from that of the rest of California and shows marked similarities to the culture of the North Coast and Pacific Northwest groups from whom they are separated by many miles and different culture groups.
|4.|| Mechanisms and Trends in the Decline
of the Costanoan Indian Population of Central California: Health and Nutrition in Pre-contact and Mission Period Environments
by Ann Lucy Wiener Stodder (1986).
Age and sex-selective patterns in mortality and depressed birth and fertility rates constituted the mechanisms of population decline. Selective pressures were exerted on infants, children, and women of childbearing age. These pressures also acted upon the adult male. The food producing labor was more sustained than the hunting and gathering activities they were accustomed to, and although they may have had more access to wild foods and meat, their diet was marginal. While the men were the primary food producers for the missions, they were not the food providers for their families. In terms of their output of labor and energy, the food energy returned to the Indians in their diets represented an immense loss, and was inadequate for the maintenance and reproduction of their population and for the survival and growth of their children.
|3.|| Papers on Central California Prehistory: 1
edited by Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat (1984).
|2.||Analysis of the Archaeological Assemblage from CA-SCR-35, Santa Cruz County, California
Diane P. Gifford and Francine Marshal, gen. eds. (with Anthropology Class 193, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1979) (1984).
This report presents a summary and discussion of some 250 kg of archaeological materials recovered from CA-SCR-35, in Santa Cruz County, California. It constitutes one of the largest samples yet analyzed from Santa Cruz County. CA-SCR-35 is a very rich site, especially in faunal remains, and contains a vast amount of data relevant to understanding the lifeways of the native peoples of the northern Monterey Bay.
|1.||A History of Central California Archaeology, 1880-1940
by Arlean H. Towne (1984).
Through initial research I discovered that Sacramento Jr. College supported a program in archaeological field work from 1933-1940. The evidence uncovered and analyzed by these investigations resulted in a definitive classification of prehistoric Indian cultures in Central California. They confirmed the existence of three major cultural sequences or horizons and overturned the belief that Indian culture had been static since the initial occupation of California.
In order to place Sacramento Junior College in its historical perspective, I found it necessary to include a general overview of paraprofessional activity in Central California and the work of the Anthropology Department of the University of California, Berkeley. Because it set as its priorities field work in Central and South American and ethnographic reconstruction in California, the Department neglected archaeological field work in California.
Two men emerged who had significant effects on the history of Central California archaeology. Each contributed in his own way; each possessed a very different attitude toward the importance of archaeological excavations. Alfred L. Kroeber was associated with the University of California Department of Anthropology from 1901 to 1946, but his influence on California archaeology will be felt indefinitely. Jeremiah B. Lillard, President of Sacramento Junior College from 1923 to 1940, initiated the first formal field class in archaeology in California.
This work also includes brief biographies of Franklin Fenenga, James Bennyhoff, Paul Ezell, Elmer Dawson, Charles McKee, Dorothy Mix, and Louis Payen. This work is a must for anyone wishing to learn more about the development of archaeology in Central California and the individuals who played major roles in that development.